TV Audio Deviation: How To Measure It, Set It Right, And Keep It That Way (1988)

By Frank F. McClatchie, F M Systems, Inc.

Measurement and Control of TV audio volume has always been with us, but other concerns have usually taken precedence. Loudness contrast between channels is accentuated by program source switching and local ad insertion, not to mention audio volume changes with each new program on any given channel. This paper explains why two programs of equal peak deviation can have very different loudness, how to measure "loudness", how to adjust TV audio modulators to equal loudness on each channel, and how to keep loudness constant even though the source program volume changes. First some theory, then the practical art "equalizing" audio levels.

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