Once the decision has been made to utilize fiber optics as the medium for communications transmission, the next question is in what form should the fiber be cabled (loose tube versus tight buffer), and how should it be installed. The application for both loose tube cables and tight buffered cables is addressed. Also, considerations for direct buried, duct, and aerial installations will be described. In addition, the differences in the two primary fiber manufacturing methods will be discussed. The concern is to insure the correct cable construction and installation are combined to provide the fiber with the necessary long term reliability beginning with the rigors of installation through the cyclic changes caused by its permanent environment.